Studio Contrechoc

design & textile & technology entries

Monthly Archives: April 2013

Research: felting conductive threads

Research on different conductive threads, within felted wool.


Checking if and which conductive thread survives felting and can be used making “drawings”  by discoloring of thermochromatic inkt applying current to the thread.


The idea is to insert the threads between the layers of wet felting. Let it dry, measure the resistance, dye the felt in thermo-chromatic ink and check the resistance again. In a former experience the “normal” silver thread was destroyed (broken – not conductive anymore) after this process.


felt from New Zealand 14.70 euro per kg
felting: 6 thin layers: three thin layers – layer of threads – three thin layers
thickness layer of felt: 2.5 mm
wet felting with warm water and soap, 30 minutes
conductive threads: length around 10 inch = 25 centimeters

Room temperature during heating: 20 degrees C. Important because the Thermo chromatic ink has a discoloring point at around 30 degrees C.

Measurements of resistance after felting and drying (checking if the wire is still conductive)

resistance: in Ohm (using a cheap multimeter, 15% of error, most important/relevant in low resistance situation)
1. elinox PSPO 30075: 120 Ohm
2. stainless steel 0.06: 110 Ohm
3. elistat grey Phtgi-STMT 74/3: 1.3 K Ohm
4. elinox orange PSS 30070: 200 Ohm
5. Conductive Thread – 234/34 4ply  14 Ohms per foot (within margin): 17 Ohm
6. Conductive Thread – 117/17 2ply 300 Ohms per foot: 400 Ohm

Measurements of resistance after applying Thermo ink

resistance: in Ohm (using a cheap multimeter)
1. elinox PSPO 30075: 100 Ohm
2. stainless steel 0.06: 84 Ohm
3. elistat grey Phtgi-STMT 74/3: 1.3 K Ohm
4. elinox orange PSS 30070: 300 Ohm
5. Conductive Thread – 234/34 4ply  14 Ohms per foot (within margin): 20 Ohm
6. Conductive Thread – 117/17 2ply 300 Ohms per foot: 600 Ohm

conclusion: the resistance after felting and applying the dye is not really changed for any of the conductive threads.

(In a former not documented comparable test the conductive threads 5 and 6 where not conductive anymore, being broken or corroded. )

Warming (discoloring) effect: (purpose of this setup is investigating the thermo effect)

1. 5V, current 40 mA, effect not visible (because of textile enclosure around metal thread?)
2. 5V, current 50 mA, effect visible after 30 seconds
3. 5V, current 0 mA, no effect (expected: resistance already very high, so a low current)
4. 5V, current 20 mA, thermo effect barely visible
5. 5V, current 180 mA, thermo effect very good and within seconds visible (180 mA is a lot for an Arduino)
6. 5V,  current 10 mA, thermo effect barely visible

Conclusion: to get an effect we need a current of at least 50 mA, fast effect 120-180 mA.
The resistance of the conductive thread in combination with the voltage applied (Arduino 5V, or with a relais a higher voltage).
All the threads have survived this test: the starting resistance is maintainend.
The elinox with the protecting outer layer of textile is isolating the metal thread so the effect is not visible where a bare metal thread with comparable resistance has a visible effect

Of course the length of the thread is linear related to the resistance: with a longer thread you need more voltage to get the same effect.

Current at an interval for maintaining the white line

Our hypothesis is that the high current (180 mA) is not necessary all the time, because the felt is keeping warm along the discolored line even after the current is off. This led to a last experiment:
Can we use a relais and at what kind of interval between current on and off a clearly visible line is maintained?
Using the silver thread number 5:
Heating up time to get a clear white line: 40 seconds (4×10000 milliseconds)
The best maintainence was reached at: 2000 millis UP (Warming) and 500 milliseconds OFF

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Seeing this effect we realized that the thickness of the felt is important. A next experiment will be done using the thread in a sandwich of less (2) layers of felt, and a third using the thread in a combination of 4-5 layers at one side and two at the other side.

Of course also the amount of applied thermo chromatic ink is important. We are thinking about a way of measuring this amount, because at the moemnt we observe that the felt is not absorbing equal amounts everywhere.

Pictures of the first process (felting):

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2.insert conductive threads after 3 layers, and

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3. add three more layers

4. adding hot water and soap

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5. felting by hand power

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5.drying on a steam engine (not using the steam)

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6.checking wires against the light

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7.measuring the resistance: all wires are still conducting current.

————  ————  ————  ————  ————  ————  ————  ————  ————  ————

Applying the thermo chromatic ink: wet

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dried, with current running through thread number 5  (the blue in dried situation is less intense)

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Thermo Ink, bought at Zijdelings , Tilburg, The Netherlands. You can see that the felt is not absorbing the ink evenly.

PS in this e-textile Skill Share workshop:

We experimented with heating circuits.

Very important for the heating circuit is the total resistance of the heating wire (or network, surface). The best total resistance to aim for is 6-10 Ohm, making a current of 500-1000 mA using 5 V. The low resistance wires are used for single lines of heating, the higher resistance wires are used in networks of wires, or heating pad’s, where you want to heat a surface. Depending on the length or the total surface (e.g. conductive fabrics) you choose for the conductive material giving the right total resistance. Then depending on the total resistance you can lower or raise the Voltage used.

Since the generated heat E = V*I (voltage times current), inserting the law of Ohm, you get E = V * V / R.

For a higher resistance you need just a little more Voltage since V is quadratic in this formula.

NASA Challenge, final result

As a final result the vest in presentation stage.

The improvements where:

  • The vest has an incredible nice lining now, so we can really wear it without getting entangled in the electronics.
  • The center big LED is glowing nicely and reacting if there is an exoplanet entered (by using the wii remote inside the felted Kepler Space Telescope) which is habitable.
  • The Liquid Crystal use their backlight to indicate which exoplanet is habitable (by blinking)
  • On the concept side: the vest is now a means to adopt exoplanets to make them less lonely.
  • There still is no page for inserting your names to adopt an exoplanet

For the rest working with the Raspberry Pi in this crowded environment proved difficult: it became slow, and we had to use a list of exoplanet which was already downloaded (making it less updatable).

Thanks to the team!!!:

  • Anja
  • Meg
  • Amran





Pictures of details: (coming)


Lovable Wearable Data!

Here is a decscription of our project:

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We work on this lovable vest (seen at the back) connected to lovable data of exoplanets.

We have a nice team of e-textilers, programmers, soldering experts…

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We received an exo-cake in the last hour before the presentation:

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Wearable NASA challenge

This involvement seems very exciting!

It is a problem which challenge to choose from “We Love DATA”, or “Solar Flares”, or “Diamond in the sky”?

All challenges seems so interesting!

There is no gear in Amsterdam,  I have prepared this felted vest. Could it be useful or just a barrier?



(DIY Hand felted :-)), with electronics: LED’s and 5 Liquid crystal displays. The groups of LED’s are controlled by 5 Attiny2313’s, these Attiny’s can be influenced (UART) by one central Atmega328 with RF12. There is another Atega328 with RF12 controlling the 5 Liquid Crystals. The data can be shown on the 5 displays which are positioned in a circle on the back of the vest. To get the data inside the vest i am using a Rasberry Pi, which is connected to it’s own atmega328 with R12.

Possible lovely DATA!
In my imagination it is fun to connect your clothing to Space Data. The problem with space is that things happen on a timescale which is for us human beings rather slow. Like colliding galaxies. But there are some data changing faster, like sunactivity.
This silly interface is not really adapted for images :-). We need text or numbers.

Although the websites covering the sun are producing amazing pictures, we also see graphics. After quite a search (if you know it it is easy as always) we discovered the plain numbers.
The Rasberry with a Python script can get data from the internet like:
This file is updated every minute (you have to change the date in the title, or do this in the python script.)

Also interesting is to take an image, udated all the time, and make processing analyse the circle of the sun, the rim, and indicated where the bright spots are turning to the visible side of the sun:

There is another contest about visualizing exoplanets. The group working on this has a github:
which can be transferred to the LED’s and the displays.
The Rasberry will be connected to a wii-remote control, using bluetooth to make changes to the data. (The wii will be hidden inside a satellite model.)

Vest: data flows


  • raspberry + atmega RF12 -> names exoplanets -> sun activity
  • (5) LCD -> atmega 328 <- RF12
  • LED’s <— (5) Attiny2313 <—> atmega328 <- IR <- RF12

interactivity with wii-remote –> raspberry pi
(there is also an IR receiver in the vest)


Felted Kepler Space Telescope
Considerations: what way to go with this strange interface? Can we make it more game like? I was planning to hide the wii remote inside a model of Kepler:
I have made this model in felt, as a soft hideout for a wii remote controller:

Now that I have chosen for the Kepler Space Telescope (in soft version) the main focus should be the exoplanet data…

In principle this interface works but it has to be fine tuned and tested. And transporting it to Amsterdam will be scary: will it still work? 🙂

Now that the wii remote is hidden in the felted Space Telescope, it feels like becoming a game. I am currently checking al the connections. Starting with the Wii -accelerations- which works with the Raspberry…yesterday the Serial UART worked with the RF12 wireless to the vest. The next step is getting names of exoplanets on the displays in the vest.
There must be a way to make this into a game 🙂

for the NASA challenge, this group is having lot’s of links:

my nerd diary: (raspberry, arduino, v-usb links, problems and solutions)